Advances in the development of vaccines for dengue fever
Monika Simmons1, Nimfa Teneza-Mora1, Robert Putnak2
1Viral and Rickettsial Diseases Department, Naval Medical Research Center, 2Division of Viral Diseases, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD, USA
Abstract: Dengue fever is caused by the mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV) serotypes 1–4, and is the most common arboviral infection of humans in subtropical and tropical regions of the world. There are currently no prophylaxis or treatment options in the form of vaccines or antivirals, leaving vector control the only method of prevention. A particular challenge with DENV is that a successful vaccine has to be effective against all four serotypes without predisposing for antibody-mediated enhanced disease. In this review, we discuss the current lead vaccine candidates in clinical trials, as well as some second-generation vaccine candidates undergoing preclinical evaluation. In addition, we discuss DENV epidemiology, clinical disease and strategies used for Flavivirus antivirals in the past, the development of new DENV therapeutics, and their potential usefulness for prophylaxis and treatment.
Keywords: tetravalent dengue vaccine, live attenuated vaccine, purified inactivated vaccine, DNA vaccine, antibody-dependent enhancement, antivirals
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